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Δευτέρα, 30 Ιουλίου 2012

NADA YOGA the ancient science of the sound

                                     Nada Yoga

               Guru Swami Satyananda Saraswati

From lectures to students of the first International Yoga Teachers Training Course at Munger, 1967-68.

Any practice or technique of meditation that brings about complete cessation of consciousness is called laya yoga. There are many sadhanas recommended in laya yoga and nada yoga is one. The word nada is derived from the Sanskrit root nad, meaning 'to flow'. Hence the etymological meaning of nada should be a process or a flow of consciousness. Ordinarily the word nada means sound. There are four stages of manifestation of sound according to frequency and subtlety or grossness. The four stages are: (i) para, (ii) pashyanti, (iii) madhyama and (iv) vaikhari. These four stages of sound should be understood scientifically.

Para nada

Para means 'transcendental, 'beyond' or 'the other side'. It is beyond the reach of the indriyas, or sense organs, and the mind and other means of cognition. Hence para nada is the transcendental sound. It is indicative of a truth that there is a sphere of super-consciousness where the sound is heard in different dimensions.

Students of classical music are aware of the fact that every note is made up of different numbers of vibrations per second. They vary in length, speed and pitch. In Indian music these vibrations are called andolana. In one second a sound may make many thousands of vibrations. Above a certain level of high frequency, sound becomes inaudible and can only be perceived subjectively. The ears cannot receive such sounds that are vibrating at a very high rate. Therefore, we are not aware of all the sounds that are present in the cosmos. Sounds having a very high frequency are transformed into silence. Beyond a certain limit, the ears do not have the capacity. No one can hear or understand a sound like that even if it is present.

Para or transcendental sound has the highest vibration frequency. This intense vibration faculty makes para inaudible. Various texts mention that para sound has no vibration. It is a sound that has no movement and therefore no frequency. It is a still sound, but we cannot conceive of a sound that has no vibration, no movements, no motion. When a sound goes to its maximum pitch, it attains a sudden stillness, and that is para nada.

In the Upanishads, the sound of Om is said to be the manifestation of para. The audible chant of Om which we produce is not para because it is physical, subject to our hearing, understanding and logic. Therefore, the audible Om cannot be called the transcendental Om. Para is a cosmic and transcendental sound devoid of all movement. It is both still and infinite. It has shape and light too. Its nature is jyoti (light). It is different from all sounds usually heard or conceived. The Upanishads clearly state, "That is Om, that sound is Om."


The second stage of sound, which has less frequency and is more gross than para, is pashyanti. It is a sound which cannot be heard, but it can be seen. Pashyanti in Sanskrit means 'that which can be seen or visualized'. The ancient scriptures maintain that sound can also be perceived. How does one see a sound? Well, have you ever heard a piece of music in a dream? This particular dimension of sound, as it is in dream, is called pashyanti. It may be called a mental sound, which is neither a conscious sound nor a semi conscious sound. It is a subconscious sound pertaining to a quality of mind and not belonging to the quality of the sense organs, like the tongue or ears.
When I say out loud "Rama, Rama, Rama, Rama," it will be called vaikhari, but when I close my eyes and mouth and go in and repeat mentally the sound of Rama, visualizing its colour and form with the inner eye, it is known as pashyanti. When the word or the sound is heard in a sphere where one is not aware of the outer surroundings, it is called pashyanti. When every outer sound is extinct and you hear a new sound altogether unlike the nature of audible sounds, know it as a special sound or the nada of pashyanti.


A form of sound having lower frequencies than para and pashyanti, but still subtler than the audible vaikhari form of sound, is known as madhyama. It is a sound produced in whispering. No audible effect is produced in it. Madhyama produces very minute vibrations in the act of a whisper. In an ordinary sound, two objects strike against each other in order to produce sound. But in madhyama no two things strike violently so as to produce audible sound. For example, when a sound is produced like 'thuck, thuck, thuck', it is called a gross sound. The word madhyama means 'in between' or ' middle', so madhyama means a middle sound, a whispering sound or the sound of a whisper.


The fourth and gross stage of nada is called vaikhari. Vaikhari sound is audible and producible. The spoken sound is vaikhari. It is produced by friction or by striking two things against each other. Its frequencies of vibration are conducted within a certain limited range.
To sum up, vaikhari is the gross quality of the vocal organs, madhyama is the subtler quality of the same physical organs, pashyanti is the quality of the subconscious or unconscious, and para is the quality of the soul.

The universe and nada

According to nada yogis and the scriptures dealing with the subject of nada yoga, the nada brahma, or the ultimate and transcendental sound, is the seed from which the entire creation has evolved. A nada yogi believes that the world is but a projection of sound alone. The whole macro cosmic universe is a projection of sound vibrations. From that sound the whole world has evolved. In the Bible there is the reference: "In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God." This word is called the nada or the shabda. Sufis in India call it surat. Surat or shabda yoga is another name for nada yoga practice. The Sufi saints of philosophical temperament also believe that out of sound and form the world evolved. The nada yogis believe that the five elements, five karmendriyas, five jnanendriyas, the fourfold mind and the three gunas have evolved out of one eternal sound. It means that prakriti, the material, mental, psychic and intellectual universe, is all an outcome of nada brahma. This is the ultimate belief of all nada yogis. So a nada yogi believes in a reality which has manifested itself in the form of vibration. It is a vibration that either does not vibrate at all or at such a high frequency that it is beyond the reach of the human faculty.

The eternal or original nada has the highest rate of frequency and vibration. When any object vibrates at a tremendous and unimaginable speed, it becomes still. It means that the highest point of motion and vibration is stillness. And that nada appears to be the creative principle of all matter and the entire material substance.
Nada yogis contend that everything in the universe originated and evolved from the eternal and infinite nada. In this context a study of the Upanishads is recommended, with special reference to Nada Bindu Upanishad and Hamsopanishad.

Music is also a materialized form of nada and the movements of prana in the body are also nothing but the expressions of nada. The purpose of nada yoga sadhana is to find out the primal, the finest, the ultimate inner sound - the word or shabda. In order to discover this transcendental and non-empirical sound, the process starts from the external gross sound. From there the ultimate form of sound is conceivable only through going into the deeper realms of our consciousness.

The centre of nada

There are different centres where the transcendental nada is said to be situated. Bhaktas try to find the centre of their ishta in anahata. Yogis try to find the centre of intuition in ajna. Vedantins try to find the centre of hiranyagarbha in sahasrara. Likewise, nada yogis locate the centre of nada in bindu. Bindu is the centre where the continuous, eternal, inaudible, unbroken and unbeaten sound goes on. For the purpose of the discovery of nada, it is true that the bindu has to be discovered primarily and finally.
Before venturing into the depth of this science, it would be better for the aspirant to locate or discover the mental, astral and psychic nature of the sound of nada. Different nada yoga practices are introduced in order to help the aspirant to get through the different psychic and non-physical sounds, before the consciousness can finally be attuned with the real nada.
Practice of nada in bhakti yoga

The practices meant for bhakti yoga are also included as practices of nada yoga. When a bhakti yogi performs mantra japa, in the first stage he tries his best to maintain awareness of the sound produced by the mantra. After having developed a deeper awareness of the sound of the mantra, he stops producing an audible sound vibration and in the second stage tries to intensify his awareness on the basis of the mantra repeated in whispered tones.

When this task is accomplished satisfactorily, he stops whispering and repeats the same mantra mentally. He tries to hear the mental and subtle notes which, though inaudible, can be visualized through a deeper form of awareness. Sometimes at this stage, it is possible to actually experience hearing the same mantra internally. The bhakti yogi will feeling as if he has really chanted the mantra in an audible tone. When the awareness of mental mantra chanting is absorbing and the mind is completely fused in a deep realm of awareness, mantra or nada is transformed into a constant inaudible repetition which will appear to the aspirant on the plane of consciousness as audible; but it will be imperceptible and inaudible to others. This is the way to experience the nada in the practice of mantra yoga by bhakti yogis.

A few kriyas combined with bandhas and mantras should also be included in order to stimulate the dormant psychic regions. The aspirant should begin the task of discovering the first sound or nada by plugging the ears and listening to the inner sounds. When the practice is fairly advanced, the ears need not be plugged in order to commune with the different dimensions of sound. Instead one should try to commune with the inner sound during the stillness of the night without closing the ears. It is easy to apprehend the inner sounds at midnight or early in the morning.

Diet of a nada yogi

The diet of a nada yogi should be light and easily digestible. Any food that sends quick influxes of blood to the brain is undesirable. Food which causes hypertension or high blood pressure should be avoided. The normal nutritional supply required to maintain normal functioning of the body should be provided.

Music and nada yoga

Music is also nada yoga, where the music is rendered absolutely scientific and classical in order to experience the nada. The development of musical systems in the past was done strictly in accordance with the views of nada yoga sadhanas. The well-known and most ancient Sama Veda is always sung with a scientific exactness and in accordance with nada yoga sadhana.

At different stages of conscious awareness, the mind is easily attracted by different waves of nada. Certain vibrations of nada seem to be agreeable at a particular time, while others are disagreeable at a particular time of the day. Certain combinations of nada are agreeable to some people and disagreeable to others. In music these nada vibrations are known as raga or musical notes. A raga having short vibrations is not relished by some. The morning music of India, like the Bhairava or Bhairavi raga, is appealing to a few, but not to all. I like the midnight music of India, the Malkos, the Durga or the Jogia ragas. The evening raga, like Bhimpalasi, is also popularly appreciated. Generally, girls and boys of a tender age prefer Bhairavi. This shows that the mind reacts differently to different sound waves at different times.

Music can be taken up as a spiritual sadhana, as a preliminary practice, or just as a pleasant, interesting and inspiring sadhana of nada yoga, through which the mind can be attuned to the subtlest vibrations before proceeding to discover the last transcendental sound of nada.

Time for practice

One can practise nada yoga whenever one is free. A beginner should practise between midnight and two a.m., the period free from the disturbing influences of external sound. Absence of light in the atmosphere also aids the practice. These help to introvert the mind.


Some precautions should be borne in mind because nada yogic sadhana can bring about a manifestation of any sound. Sometimes, if the practitioner has a weak state of mind, there may be a buzzing in the ears throughout the day. Sometimes he may hear the sound of a bell or various other sounds. Manifestation of these different sounds disturbs the peace of the aspirant. If the sound continues to agitate the mind, the nada yoga sadhana should be given up. It is sure and certain that by correct practice of nada yoga, inner sounds are developed by stages. They are not heard at any other time during the waking period.

The nada yogi is capable of hearing a voice in the waking state if he is at a very advanced stage. It appears as if someone is whispering into his ears. This is a kind of Siddhi; a power to hear a sound from an unknown.

Preparation for nada sadhana

First of all, the nada yogi should practise moola bandha, vajroli/sahajoli mudra and yoga mudra. These are important. When these have been learnt, one should practise kumbhaka and focus the consciousness on bindu. Pranayama also forms an important preliminary and essential part of this sadhana. There are many pranayama practices that can cause nada to manifest. One is moorcha. Brahmari should also be practised, with the ears plugged, and the eyes pressed with the fingers as in shanmukhi mudra. The upper and lower teeth should be kept apart, the jaw unclenched. Then the actual practice of nada yoga should follow.

Practice for the manifestation of nada

Sit down on a firm pillow in a squatting position, placing the soles of the feet on the ground with the elbows resting on the knees or thighs. For some a lower pillow will be comfortable and for others a higher one. The most important point here is that the coccyx and the perineum should be pressed against the pillow at the point of mooladhara, and therefore the pillow should be round and hard. Thus, without contraction of the anus, the mooladhara chakra should be pressed by sitting on a high and hard pillow.

After practising moorcha pranayama, shanmukhi mudra, moola bandha, vajroli/sahajoli mudra and brahmari pranayama first for a few minutes, start the practice of nada yoga in the following manner. Plug both the ears. Take the consciousness to bindu and try to find out or be aware of any sound that is internal. This internal sound may resemble anything. It may be like a cloud passing or a stream flowing, the sea roaring or a bell ringing. It may also be the sound of a flute, the rhythm of a guitar or the sound of birds chirping in the evening at the time of sunset. It might be in the form of an awareness of the distant ocean or the sound of a thunderbolt. Or it might even be the vision of a starry night devoid of any sound. These internal sounds are to be discovered by the aspirant.

If it is difficult to discover a sound in bindu, circulate your awareness in sahasrara or ajna, or in the centre of the brain, or in the right or left eardrums. Or focus your mind at chidakasha or at the centre of the third eye until you are sure to get the sound. The method of discovering the sound is simple. Instead of imagining a sound, make your mind one-pointed, then discover the first sound and pursue it up to the end. One inner sound of nada should be followed to the extent where it becomes more and more clear and prominent. As soon as it is clear and prominent, another sound (a different sound altogether) is heard and felt in the background.

When you discover the second sound, give up the first one and follow the second. For instance, close your ears and listen to the first sound, for example, the evening sound of birds. Keep on listening to it. When it becomes completely clear and distinct, find another sound manifesting behind, like the sound of a nightingale. Now continue to follow your consciousness up. Move on from the sound of the evening song of the birds. Let the music of the nightingale become clearer until the first sound has gone. When that is completely distinct and clear to your consciousness, another sound will be heard in the background. The forthcoming sound may be like the sound of crickets going 'chin, chin, chin, chin, chin'. When this sound also becomes very clear to you, reject the previous one, the singing of the nightingale, and pick up this new one. This will also become clearer after some time, and will be replaced by a fourth one. This process continues until the consciousness is completely lost, or the consciousness is completely devoid of the contents of the mind.

Nada in the koshas

These sounds which are heard are true. They are the symbols of the content of the mind and of consciousness. The mind rests on these symbols and it goes in quickly with their help. These sounds are experiences of the deeper layers of consciousness belonging to annamaya kosha, pranamaya kosha and manomaya kosha. These sounds are not imaginary. They may be understood as the vibrations of different spheres of one's existence. The physical, pranic, mental, supra-mental and the ananda or atmic are the five spheres of one's existence. In different spheres of existence different sounds are heard. There are physical sounds first, but when consciousness becomes fine and transcends the physical plane, it will come in touch with the subtle sounds of the movements of pranic consciousness in the physical body.

The entire range of human consciousness is divided into three, or subdivided into five parts. The conscious state consists of the annamaya and the pranamaya koshas, and these two bodies are made up of food and of prana. The second sphere of the personality is comprised of manomaya and vigyanamaya koshas and mainly contains mental and astral matter. The third dimension of consciousness is the realm of anandamaya kosha, which is full of bliss.
In the practice of nada yoga, the manifestation of nada takes place in accordance with the relation established between the mind and the other spheres of consciousness. For instance, if the mind or consciousness is rooted in the physical body, by closing your ears you will hear the sounds or vibrations produced by the movements of the heart, lungs, brain, blood circulation and the process of metabolism and catabolism that are going on inside the body.

If consciousness has penetrated the pranamaya kosha, you will hear many more sounds. And if the mind has gone deeper into the anandamaya kosha, then all other sounds will disappear and in its place the effect of nada yoga will remain.
It is difficult to tell which particular nada belongs to a particular sphere. In India, illustrations are given in the form of symbolic stories. The individual consciousness, which keeps on soaring high and discovering the transcendental notes, is symbolized as Rishi Narada in Indian mythology. 

Without denying the historical existence of Rishi Narada, the esoteric significance of the word Narada should be understood. Narada is supposed to be a rishi who has a veena in his hands. In nada yoga, the sound of the veena is considered to be the music of a very high sphere. According to all the traditional nada yoga cults, the nada of the flute and veena belong to that sphere of consciousness where dwaita bhava, or the duality of consciousness, ceases to exist.

Nada yoga in the Bhagavata

Nada yoga is illustrated in the great book entitled the Bhagavata (different to the Bhagavad Gita). A symbolic and allegorical description of nada is given in the form of the story of Krishna. It says, "Lord Krishna left his place at midnight and went into the jungle. It was the full moon night of the first month of winter. He began to play the flute. The echo of the flute spread in the calm and undisturbed atmosphere. Music rose from the jungle and was heard by the gopis (the village cowherd girls). When they heard the sound of the flute, they immediately left their houses and their husbands, forgetful of all that was taking place. They ran, without consideration, to the place from where the nada from the flute was emanating. They started dancing about the flute player. After some time, it so happened that each one found herself dancing individually with Krishna."

The story seems fantastic, but in fact it is not properly understood by people of the world. It is understood only by nada yogis. They consider Krishna to represent that higher sphere of consciousness where the nada of that sphere emanates during the deepest state of nada sadhana. When the emanation of flute music takes place, the senses, the indriyas, or the sense-consciousness, forsake their respective objects and withdraw from their respective centres of pleasure and perception. They recede and go back to the place from where the flute sound or the nada is emanating. There the senses dance around the nada. In that state, the senses completely withdraw from the outer objects. In other words, a yogi may say that dharana has taken place and dhyana is about to dawn.

In Sanskrit the word krishna means, 'that which draws' or 'that which attracts'. It is derived from the root word karshan. So the word krishna means 'the puller', 'the with drawer', or 'the attractor'. It also means 'farmer', and, the word gopi means 'cow'. In Sanskrit, go means 'senses', 'cow', 'poor', 'humble' and the 'whole perceptible universe'. Ordinarily, the word gopi means 'the daughter of a cowherd family'. Symbolically, gopi means 'senses'. And who are the husbands of the senses (the gopis)? It may be said that for the eyes, the form is the husband and for the ears, sound. When the music of a flute is heard, the sense of hearing leaves or withdraws itself from the outer audible sounds and merges itself in the inner nada. This process is called pratyahara.

Nada yoga and Kabir

A famous nada yogi named Kabir says in one of his poems: "Who is there playing upon a flute in the middle of the sky? On the confluence of the Ganga and Jamuna, the flute is being played, and the confluence of three rivers - Ganga, Jamuna and Saraswati - takes place in trikuti. Oh, this is a meeting point of Ganga and Jamuna. The sound emanates from the north! Cowherd girl, hear the sound of the flute and lo, they are all hypnotized by the nada."

The ultimate experience in nada yoga is a sound higher than the sound of the flute. The music of the highest sphere is not of the flute, veena, thunderbolt, clapping or any musical instrument. It is not even similar to the classical music of either east or west. The music of the highest sphere is 'anahad nada'.

Anahad nada and anahata nada

What is anahad nada? No one has been able to tell even till this day. Some say that is the cosmic sound of Om. Others say it is like brahmari, a sound resembling the unceasing and unbroken sound of the honeybee. Some say that it is the beat of the heart.

Some people call it anahad, while others call it anahat. These two words convey two different meanings. Anahatderives from 'an' + 'aahat'. 'An' means 'no', 'aahat' means 'that which is striking, hammering or beating'. Therefore, anahat means 'no beating or striking of two things'. Usually a sound is produced by two things striking against each other, but anahat is a sound which is not produced by striking. It is spontaneous and automatic. Some scholars say that the nada is anahad. 'An' means 'no' and 'hada' means 'boundary' or 'compound'. Hence, anahad means 'without any limit, without any boundary,' or 'without any specification'. It is a sound upon which no limits can be put. It can be any sound.

Nada yoga and Gorakhnath

The great guru Gorakhnath, disciple of yogi Matsyendranath, gives a description of nada yoga. He writes, "Oh sadhu! Do japa of Soham. That japa should not be done through the mind. It should be done through the consciousness, so that even when you are engaged in your day-to-day activities, you should be aware of 21,6000 rhythms of your breath throughout the 24 hours of the day, at the rate of 15 or 19 rounds per minute (which means 900 and more breaths per hour). Anahad nada will emerge and will manifest on its own." He says further, "There will be light in the spinal cord. The solar system of the surya nadi will be awakened. You will feel an indescribable vibrating sound from every pore of your body and that will be like Om or Soham."

The ultimate nada

The ultimate nada that manifests in the highest sphere of consciousness is indescribable. It is a sound coming from the sphere beyond the anandamaya kosha. A nada yogi believes that the actual point where the individual consciousness fuses with the cosmic consciousness is in the highest state of nada. The aspirant or sadhaka realizes his higher consciousness in nada and sees the whole universe in the form of sound.

             Param Guru Swami Sivananda Saraswati

Σάββατο, 28 Ιουλίου 2012

Armin. J'AI ENVIE DE TOI, avec Απολλώνιο Διόνυσο

Οι Μουσική είναι η Ένωση των Άριθμών, αριθμός προέρχεται από τη ρίζα «αρ-», ή οποία χαρακτηρίζεται και «λίαν γόνιμη», που παράγει τα: αραρίσκω - άρθρον, αρθμός (θεσμός) – αρμός, αρμόζω, αρμονία – αριθμός – άρτι, άρτιος, αρτίζω (συνθέτω) – αρτύω, αρτύς –αρι-, αρείων, άριστος και Άρης – αρέσκω, αρετή, με την ΜελΩδια η οποία ενώνει το Μέλος με την Ωδή, αηδώ ύμνο φωνητικοι ήχοι, τραγουδώ, συγκεκριμένα είναι η ωδή του μέλους σανσκριτικά mel ή όταν το σώμα χορεύει.

Κυρίος οι Μουσικοί αυτοι που παράγουν την μουσική απο την φύση τους σαν ενέργειες είναι δύσκαμπτοι στο να εκφραστούν με την ωδή του μέλους διότι αυτήν την ωδη την έχουν μέσα στο νού τους, σπάνια μουσικός ακόμα και της διαστημικής εποχής των μουσικών deejay, έχει εκείνη την ιδιότητα, που εξωτερικεύει την ωδή απο τον Νού του στο μέλος........ένας τέτοιος Μουσικός είναι ο ιπτάμενος ολλανδός Armin με την Αρμάδα του!!!
Η λέξη μουσική, στη σημερινή εποχή, σημαίνει την τέχνη των ήχων, αντίθετα με τους αρχαίους Έλληνες οι οποίοι έδιναν στη λέξη μουσική διαφορετικό νόημα, εννοούσαν την αδιάλυτη ενότητα ήχου και λόγου, κάτι που δεν υφίσταται στις μέρες μας.

Με την άθληση γυμνάζεται το σώμα, ενώ με τη μουσική το πνεύμα.

Η μουσική, το δώρο των Μουσών, στην αρχαία Ελλάδα, προσδιόριζε και χαρακτήριζε τον άνθρωπο που πράττει, σκέφτεται και αισθάνεται. Έτσι ως μέσο πνευματικής ωρίμανσης, η λέξη που θα χαρακτήριζε την αρχαία ελληνική μουσική, δεν είναι η λέξη «τέχνη» αλλά οι λέξεις παιδεία και δύναμη. Αυτό φαίνεται και από το γεγονός ότι εκείνος που έπαιζε τον αυλό π.χ. ονομαζόταν αυλητής και όχι μουσικός δηλαδή θεωρούνταν ένας απλός εκτελεστής. Όμως μετά το διαχωρισμό της μουσικής από το λόγο, τη γλώσσα, ο οποίος έγινε λίγο μετά των Πλάτωνα, βλέπουμε τη χρήση της έννοιας μουσικός. Αυτή η μεταβολή έμελλε να είναι η γέννηση μιας αυτόνομης τέχνης που, όπως προαναφέρθηκε, ήταν ενταγμένη μέσα στον λόγο.

Η έννοια του ήθους στη μουσική συνδέεται με την αντίληψη ότι η μουσική μπορεί να ασκεί επίδραση στην ψυχή του ανθρώπου. Σύμφωνα με τη θεωρία του ήθους ή αλλιώς ηθική θεωρία της μουσικής, σε κάθε ρυθμική και μελωδική κίνηση υπάρχει μια ανάλογη συναισθηματική αντίδραση, με την έννοια ότι η μουσική μπορεί να επιδράσει στον άνθρωπο είτε θετικά παροτρύνοντας τον σε μία ενέργεια της βούλησής του είτε αρνητικά αποτρέποντάς τον από μία ενέργεια της βούλησης είτε τέλος απονεκρώνοντας τη βούλησή του. Βέβαια η θεωρία του ήθους δεν εξαντλείται μονάχα σε γενικές διαπιστώσεις, αλλά εμβαθύνει στην αισθητική διερεύνηση των δομικών παραμέτρων της μουσικής εξετάζοντας το ήθος της μελωδίας, των αρμονιών (τροπικών κατατάξεων), των γενών και ων ρυθμών. Έτσι, κάθε είδος μουσικής, κάθε είδος μελωδίας αλλά και ρυθμού έχει ένα ορισμένο ήθος ανάλογα με την επίδραση που ασκεί στην ψυχή. Ο Δώριος τρόπος έλεγαν, δυναμώνει τον χαρακτήρα, διδάσκει θάρρος εμπρός στον κίνδυνο και καρτερικότητα στη δυστυχία. Ο Φρύγιος (ο τρόπος του διθυράμβου- όπως και ο ήχος του αυλού- έχει τη δύναμη να ξεσηκώνει και να φλογίζει τα πνεύματα. Την διδασκαλία περί ήθους διαπραγματεύονται περισσότερο ή λιγότερο συστηματικά όλοι σχεδόν οι θεωρητικοί της αρχαίας ελληνικής μουσικής, είτε για να την αποδεχτούν είτε για να την απορρίψουν. Πρώτος, όμως, την ανέπτυξε συστηματικά ο Δάμων ο Αθηναίος. Η προέλευση ωστόσο της διδασκαλίας πρέπει μάλλον να αναζητηθεί στην αρχική σύνδεση της μουσικής με τη θρησκευτική λατρεία και τη μαγεία. Μέσα στις νέες ιστορικές συνθήκες της πόλης η τυφλή υποταγή στα τελετουργικά και στις εθιμικές επιταγές του παρελθόντος δεν αντιστοιχούσε πια στην κοινωνική θέση της τέχνης και ειδικά της μουσικής. Η διδασκαλία περί ήθους έρχεται λοιπόν να δώσει μία επιστημονική θεωρητική θεμελίωση σ' αυτό που εμπειρικά ήταν ανέκαθεν γνωστό- ότι η μουσική επιδρά στη διαμόρφωση των καταστάσεων της ψυχής. Βέβαια, η σχετική απλότητα της μουσικής των Ελλήνων, τους επέτρεπε να διαπιστώνουν, με αυστηρό πειραματικό έλεγχο, την καλή ή κακή επίδραση των διαφόρων ήχων, πράγμα που θα ήταν αδύνατο σήμερα. Σίγουρα όμως, ως αρχή, η θεωρία του ήθους είναι σωστή και μπορεί στην εποχή μας ακόμη να μας διδάξει πολλά.
προς τιμή όλων των παραπάνων και των Μουσών απόψε θα ταξιδέψουμε με την Αρμάδα του Άρμιν σε ιδιωτικό προσωπικό Πάρτι

Παρασκευή, 27 Ιουλίου 2012

Role of Yoga Teachers in the 21st Century Swami Satyananda Saraswati

Role of Yoga Teachers in the 21st Century
Swami Satyananda Saraswati

Today I will talk to you about the new role of yoga teachers, the role of yoga teachers in the changed environments of the world.
When, at the beginning of this century, yoga was revived all over the world, it was very vaguely understood. Swami Vivekananda brought yoga to the West, but he spoke in general terms, providing a philosophy of karma yoga, bhakti yoga, jnana yoga and raja yoga. He was followed by many yoga teachers. Ram Charak taught hatha yoga and pranayama. There were people like Yogi Vitthal, Siddha Baba, Dr Rammurti Mishra. Then came Paramahamsa Yogananda who taught kriya yoga. By then things became clearer, the science of hatha yoga was accepted by and large in the world as a science of healing, therapy, physical and mental balance.

Initially, the yoga teachers only taught hatha yoga. They did not even think of teaching meditation because it was thought that meditation had more to do with God than with man, and was not necessary for those concerned only with material life, not a higher life. As scientific studies were conducted, it was found that meditation could be a path to higher realization, but that it was more important and necessary for mind and body balance.
That mode of thinking is also over now. The idea of importance of meditation in terms of physical and mental balance and therapy has been transcended. Research and practical experiments have been conducted on disabled people, mentally challenged children, drug addicts, prisoners, criminals, etc. and things are becoming clearer. People are convinced that yoga has some role to play in effectively dealing with such situations.

New role of yoga
The question that the coming generation will ask of yoga teachers is: “How can yoga transform the quality of human personality?” That will be the most important and crucial challenge that yoga and yoga teachers will have to meet.

Hatha yoga and raja yoga will continue to be the science of therapy, concentration, relaxation and physical health. We are now about to enter the twenty-first century. The problems are going to be more acute. Governments are well organized and education systems are in place. We are making law after law to maintain a balance in society, between society and the human, personal element. Religions are also being revived in various ways in order to maintain this relationship: a better relationship between society and the individual. Still, it is certain that they will not be able to accomplish the task that the next century will require: a higher quality of human being. Such a quality of human being cannot be produced unless some metamorphic change takes place within us. The question that will be asked is, can yoga can help in changing the human personality?

Yoga teachers throughout the world have to think about this and adjust their teachings and knowledge for the fulfilment of this task. Of course, people live in different countries, have different cultures, food habits, living habits, social customs and religions. These are different and they should be different. There cannot be one culture, one civilization, one government or one religion. It is neither possible nor good. But there are certain basic elements in the personality of the human being which are the same everywhere. They influence our judgements, behaviours, passions, ambitions, likes and dislikes. Cultural, social, religious and other differences have no influence on this structure. The complexities are the same. And it is in this regard that the science of yoga has something to contribute.

Beyond morality and law
In order to influence the quality of a person, we have all along been trying religious principles, social laws, ethics and morality. We have gone on the lines of: “This is bad, do not do it,” “If you do it, you will go to jail,” “It is bad for health,” “You will be condemned to hell.” These are the methods that have been adopted so far: the religious and the legal. However, in the twenty-first century, man is not going to heed to these things. He will become too arrogant and impatient to do so. The attitude of the coming century is going to be: “I do not believe that there is anyone who can put me to heel. You may control innocent children that way, but not me. I can do whatever I like. There is no one who can punish me.” Therefore, a different approach will have to be found to influence the human personality.

Tantra talks about samskaras and karma. This refers to archetypes: the thoughts that exist within the deepest sphere of our personality, not in the conscious or unconscious sphere, but even deeper. Those are the seeds from which our behaviour and attitudes spring, both good and bad. That is the bed, the very bottom. If you cannot change the bed, but only change the external, socially imposed behaviour – “I am good because I am taught to be good” – it is of no use. The base is no good, it is full of things. We may try to be good because we have been trained, forced or indoctrinated to be good. But when we become aware of this, we no longer want to be good because we do not care for social laws. Therefore, we have to send the influence to the basis of human nature, what yoga calls prakriti, samskaras. The internal range of the human personality has to be influenced.

Work with archetypes
Some years ago, a Swiss teacher, Zoe Durf, experimented with children to improve their faculties and quality of the mind. He used the methods of yantra and mandala. And he succeeded. He found that yantras and mandalas are such symbols that have the capacity to influence the unconscious, the deepest beliefs of man’s nature, its bottom most layer. The change in the intellectual personality of the children was clearly evident. Therefore, yoga teachers of the coming century should equip themselves with knowledge of the human personality. They should know how to deal with samskaras, archetypes, with the nature of man.

Just as there is physical disability, there is also mental disability. The billions of people around us are mentally all the same, more or less. You do not realize that yet, but by the coming century you will. The thinkers are coming to that point. We are all ill, physically and mentally. Why do you say that man is a sinner? Why do you not say that he is sick? It is a better definition of his personality. If someone is debauched or a criminal, don’t call him a sinner. Call him sick. That is a much better and truer definition of such a personality. Just as we have physical sicknesses, the mind is also sick. That is why we fight and steal. Mental sickness is not merely worry, anxiety or fear. There are many forms of mental sicknesses and they have to be treated systematically. It is then that the human personality will become healthy.

In order to treat the real human sickness, the methods of psychology will not help much. We have to instead use methods with which we can go deep inside the mind. We have to teach this to our students. So, alongside the teaching that you provide according to the rules and regulations of the organization to which you are affiliated, it will be necessary for you to realize the vital issue, which I call mental disability, mental illness, and adjust your teachings and knowledge. Use the methods of yoga that you know to fulfil this aspect of human life.

Healing the whole personality
People come to you now to get relaxation, or they do not get good sleep or have bad digestion so they come to you. However, a time should come when people come to you to heal their mind and personality. Someone gets angry and depressed. He beats his wife and children. What yoga will such a person practise? This is the question that students will have to ask yoga teachers. Sometimes, they do ask, but usually they don’t. They feel that yoga teachers are just teaching them a bit of relaxation and a few other things.

To equip yourself with the basic knowledge in order to handle the human personality, it will be necessary for all of you to study tantra and of course, yoga. Tantra has been misunderstood not only in the West, but everywhere. There are sects that have related tantra to sexual life. Tantra is not against sexual life, but to interpret it solely on that line is an insult to the science. Tantra does not say that you should refrain from the sensual act. It has been very liberal in this respect, but it does not say that this is the path. There are also people who practise tantra using human skulls and such things. All these unnecessary things that have entered into the body of tantra have to be removed and its basic philosophy of Purusha and Prakriti, matter and consciousness, Shiva and Shakti, has to be understood. The methods of expanding the mind and liberating the energy have to be studied. A study into the tantric system will reveal to us the nature of the man behind the man, the one who is directing all karmas, all our behaviours. Therefore, I want to tell all teachers all over the world that they should enlarge the scope of their activities.

Πέμπτη, 26 Ιουλίου 2012

The Message of Yoga

The Message of Yoga

Swami Niranjanananda Saraswati

Satsang at Rocklyn Ashram, Australia, April 1995

I would like to mention some things in relation to our practice, our understanding and our approach to yoga. We believe that yoga is a set of practices, confined to asana, pranayama, mudra, bandha, shatkarmas, and techniques of meditation. Apart from these practical aspects, the rest of yoga is purely philosophical, whether bhakti yoga, karma yoga, jnana yoga or any other form of yoga. We tend to start mental analysis of these different yogas. If karma yoga says this, how can I, with my present mentality and understanding, incorporate it? If bhakti yoga means this, then how can I, in my present environment, try to understand it? We fail to observe one very important point.

Yoga is not a philosophy, nor is it a practice. There is a part of yoga which is practice, but the other aspects of yoga only give us the message to think and live properly and get our act together. It is the nature of human beings to always think in terms of how we can derive the most benefit from something. Many times when we try to adjust and adapt the practices of yoga according to our nature and personality, we alter them so much that the main direction of yoga is missed. That is our nature. I will give you an example.

We believe bhakti yoga to be the yoga of devotion and devotion becomes an external activity. We believe karma yoga to be the yoga of action and it becomes an external activity. We believe jnana yoga to be the yoga of knowledge and it becomes a process of intellectual gymnastics. We know kundalini yoga is awakening the energy in the form of kundalini in order to experience the growth of human consciousness. However, we get caught up in our own psychological, mental and emotional experiences and never experience the actual awakening. The moment we become involved in trying to adjust and adapt the yogic practices to suit our mentality, we deviate from the direction of yoga.

Karma yoga: action, expectation and perfection

This is a problem I have come across many times in my own dealings and relationships with other people. We superimpose our ideas and our aspirations onto the practices of yoga that we are performing at present. If we hear somebody say that karma yoga is the yoga of action, not having any expectation and trying to do every action with total perfection, then immediately the 'me' aspect of our personality, the 'I' identity, begins to analyze what has been said. We begin to analyze how the 'I' identity, can understand the approach of performing an action without expectation, with perfection.

So I begin to think in three ways. The first aspect is action. I develop my own understanding of action. If I am an extroverted person, I will consider my actions to be working in the field, working in the kitchen, working in the office. If I am an introverted person, I will consider my actions to be my behaviour, my expressions, how I deal with people, how I relate with other people. And that becomes our concept of action.

Now comes the second aspect which is to have no expectations. The moment I say to myself, 'I must not have any expectation', the 'I' identity brings to the front the concept of desire, security, satisfaction, fulfilment. Then I begin to think, 'Well if I'm not supposed to have any expectation, then what am I going to get out of it? If I'm not supposed to have any expectation of the result, then how am I going to fulfil the gap which is being created within me by leaving what I wish to attain, what I would naturally and normally expect as the result?' We say, 'I live in the world where I have to deal with expectation. I can't practise karma yoga because I will have to leave everything.' This kind of thought and idea enters the picture.

Then comes the third aspect which is perfection. The concept of perfection is again distorted by the idea of perfection that we have in our minds. How can I make my every action a perfect action when I do not get support or encouragement, when I do not get feedback from other people around me? By developing these kinds of thoughts we create our own image and concept of what expectation, perfection and action are. Whatever does not suit our beliefs is not accepted. We simply reject it by saying, 'No, it is not possible for me to do that; I have many things to expect and attain in life.' This is one example.

The eight steps of raja yoga

The same thing applies with raja yoga. We know that there is a sequence in raja yoga, the eightfold path of yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana leading up to samadhi. But how many of us have followed this sequence with sincerity? How many of us are trying to incorporate the aspect of yama and niyama in our life? Very few – they can be counted on the fingers of one hand. We believe that yama and niyama are moral aspects of yoga and do not relate to us because we are different. We start with asana and pranayama because they are good for the body. The body releases energy and becomes more flexible.

Then after going through the practices of asana and pranayama we say, 'Alright, now I am going to practise dhyana.' We move into a meditative state by creating certain images, fantasies and ideas of what dhyana should be or how we can practise it. We skip the practices of pratyahara and dharana. Only in times of difficulty, when we find that we cannot meditate at all, do we resort to the practices of pratyahara or dharana. Then we ask somebody, 'Look, I cannot concentrate properly. How can I overcome this problem?' That person tells us to practise trataka in order to develop concentration and so we leave dhyana and go back to dharana in order to start the practice of trataka.

After some time we say to ourselves, 'Okay I have done one month of trataka practice. It is not necessary to do any more, I will go back to dhyana.' When we start the meditation, again we confront our negativity and positivity, desire and repulsion, strength and weakness, which creates another movement. When we confront our weakness, we say to ourselves, 'I don't know why I am getting such results in my meditation. I should feel good, but I am becoming more and more depressed. I don't know why I am not having good experiences in my meditation; other people have very good experiences.'

Then we consult somebody who tells us, 'Look, if you are finding these difficulties in your practice you should go back to the practices of pratyahara.' Practise antar mouna, antar darshan or hamsa dhyana and observe what is happening inside. Once you have a complete picture and are able to deal with the arising of emotions, feelings and thoughts, then you can go back to the practice of dhyana.' So again we come back to pratyahara.

Kundalini yoga

There are certain things which we believe are unimportant or unnecessary for us, and there are other things which we give great importance to, but we do not have the right preparation for them, kundalini yoga or kriya yoga, for example. After practising hatha yoga for one year we decide to move on to kriya yoga. We feel a tingling sensation in the spine and convince ourselves that our kundalini is twisting and turning, that it is awakening from its dormant state. We get a very fiery sensation in the stomach and convince ourselves that manipura chakra is awakened. We get a funny sensation in the heart and convince ourselves that anahata chakra is awakened.

It is quite possible that they are awakened, but then we are unable to channel the energy that is manifesting in the chakra. Not only are we unable to channel the energy, but we cannot even handle the changes that are happening in our own thoughts, in our own consciousness due to it. We want to awaken everything yet remain the same outside, without any change. If you want to take a bath or jump in the river but do not want to get wet, it is not going to be possible. We become wet when we jump in the river, but we think, 'Oh no, I don't want to change my clothes now, I want to stay dry!' Yet the desire is still there to swim in the river.

Follow the steps

Many such situations arise in life because we tend to jump from one stage to the next. However, yoga says, 'No. If you want to derive the full benefit from yoga, then please follow the steps as they have been defined.' The yogis who evolved this path were not idiots. They were great thinkers, psychol-ogists and psychiatrists. They understood the nature of the human mind and the difficulties which one can go through in the course of life. To avoid problems they created a system in which we must perfect the first aspect, then the second aspect, then the third aspect, then the fourth aspect.

The moment we begin to follow a sequence in yoga and integrate that sequence into our life, a very beautiful experience takes place. As Paramahamsaji says in his own words, 'Life is a flowering mystery and every unfoldment is beautiful.' We do not know how a flower actually unfolds from the bud; it is a mystery of life, a cosmic mystery. Every unfoldment in life is beautiful. Nature follows a system, God follows a system, the whole universe is based on a system. That system is positive, it is not negative. It is a positive system which leads one through the process of evolution to the total experience of enlightenment.

Enlightenment is the opening of consciousness, it is not the closing of consciousness. Many people in the course of yogic practice tend to close their consciousness, to restrict their vision. That is not the aim. The moment you begin to restrict yourself, a negative state is experienced, not a positive one. I am not talking of a system in the form of an organized structure which can create some form of change in life. I am talking of a system in the sense of a progression. This yogic system is already there. You do not have to create it; you only have to move through it. In the world we can create a system, but in the path of evolution we cannot create a system because it is already there. The path is already laid out; it is only a matter of continuous walking. This is the message of yoga.

Living in harmony with the whole

In the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali it is stated that through discipline it is possible to channel the emotions and the fluctuations or modifications of the mind. After channelling the emotions and activity of the inner mind, it is possible to reach a stage where one can experience the sattwic nature of the Self, the nature of light, of sattwa. However, because of our pre-conceived ideas, discipline becomes a structure which we create in our life. In yoga we do not create discipline; we become aware of the discipline which already exists. That structure, is the unifying aspect of the whole cosmos and the individual being. We are part of a greater whole and we have to live, to play the role. But that role is not me only, it is me in relation to everything, to the greater whole.

A contingency plan

We make plans for our lives without trying to change ourselves when we encounter a new situation. As Paramahamsaji says, we do not have a contingency plan. These are the words that Paramahamsaji always uses. We act in life without a contin-gency plan. There has to be planning as well as preparation to meet the arising situations of life. If I am going somewhere and during the journey it begins to rain, then what will happen? So I need to take an umbrella or a raincoat. If that planning is not there and it begins to rain when I am out, then my trip will be spoiled.

There is a saying, 'Dig a well if you are thirsty, otherwise forget about the well, it is not needed.' When we feel thirsty, we try to dig the well, but we don't follow the proper process, because we wish to avoid certain stages which we consider unnecessary at present. However, yoga says, 'No. Think of the approach that you have to take and follow it in the correct manner, because life is too precious to be wasted away in trial and error.

In our lifespan, whether it is sixty years or eighty years, we have many things to do, not only external and social but also in relation to our inner nature. We make plans for our external life, let us also make a plan for our inner life. We make plans when we go on a journey, let us make a plan when we practise yoga. The planning has to be there, and this planning already exists. It is only a matter of following the sequence as it has been defined.

                       Picture taken from

Developing self-observation

Yoga is not only a physical practice, it is also a changing of attitude. Many times when we encounter certain difficulties in the course of our own sadhana, we ask for help. That is perfectly valid. We have to ask for help. We need some guidance, some instructions on how to get out of that stage. But when we need to ask for that kind of help, it simply means that we have not perfected the previous stage of yoga. We have not been able to change our attitude, our perception, our performance. We are not practising in accordance with our own ability. We have no knowledge of our strengths.

For this reason, I have evolved the SWAN theory. It is the theory of pratyahara. The word SWAN represents our Strength, Weakness, Ambition and Need. We all have certain strengths, weaknesses, ambitions and needs, but we are not aware of what they are? We do not know what we are, what is contained inside our head. We are not aware of ourselves. We cannot even develop our awareness to an extent where observation becomes a force. Our observation is restricted to the direction, to the area which our consciousness is seeing at the present time.

Our awareness is limited in the same way as our sight. If I look ahead, I cannot look back; if I look to one side then I cannot see the other. We are only aware of what is happening in the field of our consciousness. However, by developing the power of self-observation we can become aware of a larger area. We can become aware of the whole picture, not only that part where we are presently directing our consciousness.

Yama and niyama

In order to develop this power of self-observation, to realize the nature, the inner structure, to understand the dimensions of human experience, we do not need to practise concentration or meditation. We only need to follow the guidelines as set out in the practice of yama and niyama. They are very important aspects of yoga. Yama and niyama are not disciplines. They are ways to overcome the limitations, the restrictions of our mind and ego.

Shaucha means cleanliness. What does cleanliness mean to us? A clean body, a clean environment, a clean house, a clean room, clean air. But cleanliness here means a clean mind. There should be no rubbish, negativity or conflict inside the head. There should be total clarity of thought, ideas and knowledge, not confusion. The concept of cleanliness is not external or superficial. It is harmony of the mental, emotional and psychic experiences.

Santosha means contentment. It is very easy to say, 'I am happy as I am', but are we really happy as we are? If we are happy why are we fighting with ourselves, with our egos? Why are we struggling to find further happiness in life? Why can't we just 'be'? Why do we have to put on different masks at different times? Why can't we simply remain without a mask? Why can't we accept that we are what we are with all our shortcomings and faults? Why can't we realise that we have shortcomings and faults. Why do we have to hide from our shortcomings and faults? The moment I try to hide from myself, I lose the state of contentment.

Satya is truthfulness, the awareness of how we express ourselves in life. Are we able to express ourselves in a positive, creative way? Are we sincere in what we do? This kind of awareness has to develop in regard to the actions which are being performed externally and internally. Satya does not mean that we speak the truth but that we are truthful to ourselves. It means observing the sincerity within ourselves. Do we hide from ourselves? Do we hide from our weaknesses? Do we avoid confronting them? If we do then we are not true to ourselves. That is the concept of satya.

Ahimsa means non-violence which relates not only to the expression of anger, hatred, jealousy or animosity. Rather it is the removal of the limiting, restrictive, negative awareness, the absence of animosity, absence of conflict from thought and feeling as well as from action. These are certain ideas which have been beautifully defined in the practice of yama and niyama, so that by their practice we can alter the structure of our inner personality and experience inner growth and freedom. Each one of us has to evolve an understanding of yama and niyama.

Applied knowledge

So we should remember that if we want to derive the full benefit of yoga, we should not impose our personal ideas on the yogic practices or concepts. Rather we should try to incorporate the teachings of yoga into our lives to the best of our ability and apply them in all situations and at all times. In that way we can attain wisdom. Knowledge is an intellectual process, but the moment we begin to apply knowledge practically in our life, that knowledge becomes wisdom. Knowledge becomes wisdom when it is applied in life. Knowledge remains knowledge when we know something, but we do not apply it due to our situation or circumstances.

As a yoga aspirant, as a student of yoga, as a yogi, as a sannyasin, whatever our role may be in the world of yoga, our efforts should always be to apply what we know, and not to cram ourselves with different views and ideas and miss or lose our own direction in life. This has been the message that Paramahamsaji has been giving. I have found this inspiration in his satsangs.

The practices of yoga, whether asana, pranayama or meditation, are very good. We should try to do them but, along with these practices, we must also try to understand the reality behind the external appearance. All that glitters is not gold. How do we know that it is not gold? We have to look behind the appearance and only then can we become a true yoga sadhaka.

tasmai shri gurave namah

verses as Satyam

Gurur Brahma Gurur Vishnu
Gurur Devo Maheshwara
Guroreva Parabrahma
Tasmai Shri Gurave Namah

Agnana Timiram Dhasya
Gnananjana Shalkaya
Chakshurunmelitam Yena
Tasmai Shri Gurave Namah

Akhanda Mandalakaram
Vyaptam Yena Characharam
Tat Padam Darshitam Yena
Tasmai Shri Gurave Namah

Chinmayam Vyapi Yat Sarvam
Trailokyam Sa Characharam
Tat Padam Darshitam Yena
Tasmai Shri Gurave Namah

Aneka Janma Samprapta
Karma Bandha Vidahini
Atma Jnana Pradanena
Tasmai Shri Gurave Namah

Mannattha Shri Jagannatha
Madguru Shri Jagatguru
Madatma Sarva Bhutatma
Tasmai Shri Gurave Namah

plus verses as Satyananda Yoga

My Salutations to that Guru who revealed to me that Truth, which is unfragmented, infinite,
timeless divinity, and which pervades the entire universe – movable or unmovable.

My Salutations to that reverential teacher, who opened my eyes, by applying the divine collyrium of
self-knowledge in my eyes, which had got blinded by the cataract of ignorance.
Guru himself is the creator, sustainer and the destroyer. He is verily the very transcendental
divinity, (the timeless life-principle, which is the very essence of the creator etc.) My reverential
salutations to that glorious teacher.

My Salutations to that reverential teacher, who revealed to me that which pervades everything in
this world, whether animate-inanimate, or movable-immovable.

My salutations to that glorious Guru, who revealed to me that self-effulgent divinity (the pure
unconditioned consciousness) which pervades all the three worlds, with all its movable and
immovable objects.

My Salutations to that reverential teacher, who is like a sun for the blossoming up of the lotus like
mantras of upanishads; and at whose lotus feet lie the beautiful flowers, symbolizing the best of
jewels of vedas.

My Salutations to that reverential teacher, who is verily the eternal consciousness, which is of the
nature of peace. He transcends space (& time), the concept of zero, the primordial sound and all

My Salutations to that glorious Gurudev, who is established in Knowledge and Power, who is
adorned with the garland-of -Knowledge and who grants both worldly prosperity and spiritual

My Salutations to that reverential teacher who by imparting the Self-Knowledge, has burnt away the very bondage of actions in a whiff, which had even though taken infinite lives to accumulate.
Even by the very sipping of the charanamruta (the water with which the feet of guru are washed), we get blessed by the eternal wealth (of liberating knowledge), and which dries up the endless ocean of seeking & the subsequent sorrows.

My Salutations to the lotus-feet of that glorious Gurudev.
There is no higher truth than the Guru, no higher penance than (service to) the Guru, and there is nothing higher than Realisation of the Knowledge of the truth imparted by the Guru. 

My salutations to such a Gurudev, who is himself that very timeless truth (and who has taken up a form to bless his disciples like us with real knowledge).
My Lord is the Lord of Universe; My teacher is the teacher of the entire universe; and my Self is the Self of all. 

My salutations at the lotus-feet of such a Guru, who has revealed such knowledge to me. The Guru is the beginning of the Universe, yet he himself is without a beginning, the Guru is the highest deity, and there is none higher than the Guru. 

My reverential salutations at the lotus-feet of such a Gurudev.
The basis of my meditation is the image of my Guru, that of my worship his feet. I derive my mantra from his word, my salvation through his grace.


1. akhaëòa-maëòalaa-kaaram
vyaaptam yena charaa-charam |
tat-padam darshitam yena
tasmai shree gurave namaha ||

2. agyaana-timi-raandhasya
gyaanaan-jana-shalaa-kayaa |
chakshurun-meelitam yena
tasmai shree gurave namaha ||

3. gurur-brahmaa gurur-viñhëuh
gurur-devo maheshvaraha |
guruh saakshaat param-brahma
tasmai shree gurave namaha ||

4. sthaavaram jaìgamam vyaaptam
yat-kinchit sa-charaa-charam |
tat-padam darshitam yena
tasmai shree gurave namaha ||

5. chinmayam vyaapitam sarvam
trai-lokyam sa-charaa-charam |
tat-padam darshitam yena
tasmai shree gurave namaha ||

6. sarva-shruti-shiro-ratna
viraajita-padaam-bujaha |
tasmai shree gurave namaha ||

7. chaitanyam shaashvatam shaantam
vyomaa-teetam niranjanaha |
tasmai shree gurave namaha ||

8. gyaana-shakti-samaa-rooòhah
tattva-maalaa vibhooñhitaha |
bhukti-mukti-pradaataa cha
tasmai shree gurave namaha ||

9. aneka janma-sampraapta
karma-bandha-vidaahine |
aatma-gyaana pradaanena
tasmai shree gurave namaha ||

10. shoñhaëam bhava-sindhosh-cha
gyaapanam saara-sampadaha |
guror-paado-dakam samyak
tasmai shree gurave namaha ||

11. na guro-radhikam tattvam
na guro-radhikam tapaha |
tattva-gyaanaat param naasti
tasmai shree gurave namaha ||

12. mannaathah shree jagannathah
mad-guruh shree jagad-guruhu |
mad-aatmaa sarva-bhootaatmaa
tasmai shree gurave namaha ||

13. guru-raadi-ranaa-dish-cha
guruh parama-daivatam |
guroh parataram naasti
tasmai shree gurave namaha ||

14. dhyaana-moolam guror-moorttih

poojaa-moolam guror-padam |

mantra-moolam guror-vaakyam
moksha-moolam guror-kripaa ||