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Παρασκευή, 13 Απριλίου 2012

Samskaras : The Impression in Mind

All actions, enjoyments and experiences leave their mark in the subconscious and unconscious mind in the form of subtle impressions or residual potencies. These impressions are termed samskaras and are the roots of causing rebirth and experiences of pleasure and pain. The yogi dives deep inside and comes in direct contact with these samskaras. He directly perceives them through the inner yogic vision.

What are samskaras?
A vritti or thought wave arises in the mind-ocean. It operates for some time. Then it sinks below the threshold of normal consciousness. From the surface of the conscious mind, where it was uppermost for some time, it sinks down deep into the region of the subconscious or unconscious layers of the mind or chitta. There, it continues to be a subliminal action and becomes a samskara or impression. A conscious action, whether cognitive, affective or conative, assumes a potential and hidden (sukshma and avyakta) form just below the threshold of consciousness. This is termed as samskara.

Memory, a revival of samskara
Samskaras are embedded in the subconscious and unconscious layers of the mind whose seat is the cerebellum or hindbrain. You can recall past experiences from the storehouse of samskaras in these layers of the mind. The past is preserved in the chitta to the minutest detail, not a bit is ever lost.
When the fine samskaras come back up to the surface of the conscious mind as big waves, when the past vrittis come back to the surface of the conscious mind by recollection, the process is called memory recall. Revival of samskaras induces memory or smriti. Memory cannot exist without samskaras.

How a samskara is formed
An experience in the sense plane sinks down into the depths of the subconscious or unconscious mind (chitta) and there becomes a samskara. A samskara of an experience is formed or developed in the chitta at the very moment that the mind is experiencing something. There is no gap between the experience and the formation of a samskara in the deeper mind.
A specific experience leaves a specific samskara. The memory of this specific experience springs from that particular samskara only, which was formed out of that particular experience. When you perceive an orange and its taste for the first time, you get knowledge of an orange. You know its taste. You know the object: orange. A samskara is formed in the mind at once. At any time, this samskara can generate a memory of the object, orange, and knowledge of an orange. Though the object and the act of knowledge are distinguishable, yet they are inseparable.

Cyclic causation of thought and samskara
An object awakens or revives samskaras in the mind through external stimuli. Hence, a thought arises subjectively from within, without a stimulus from outside. When you think of a cow that you have seen before, you repeat the word ‘cow’ mentally and only then the mental image appears. Next, a thought is formed. Samskara causes thought, and thought causes samskara just as a seed is the cause of a tree and the tree is the cause of the seed in turn. A vritti in the mind produces a samskara and a samskara in turn again causes a vritti.
Owing to the force of stimuli either from within or without, the seed-like samskaras again expand and give rise to further activity. This cycle of vritti and samskara is anadi or beginningless, but has an end when one attains liberation. Now they dissolve into Prakriti or assume the state of laya. They cease to produce any effect on a jivanmukta, liberated being. Samskaras should be fried up by continuous samadhi. Then only you will be free from the cycle of births and deaths.

Samyama over samskaras
Samskara is also known as residual potency. When all vrittis or thoughts die away, the frame of the mind remains with samskaras alone. This is termed as the potential mind. In Vedantic parlance, it is called antahkarana matra.
All samskaras co-exist in the mind. One who has a yogic vision can vividly notice the marvels that take place in the mental factory, how the vritti arises in the mind lake, how it subsides and how a samskara is formed. You will be struck with wonder when you are able to observe this. Samyama or control over samskaras imparts direct knowledge of the residual potencies. A yogi brings into direct consciousness his previous lifetimes through the knowledge of his samskaras.

Positive and negative samskaras
Like all forces, samskaras aid or inhibit one another. When you notice a man suffering from a serious sickness and the feeling of mercy arises in your heart, all the samskaras of your previous merciful actions coalesce together and force you to serve and help that man. Similarly, all samskaras of charitable actions come forth to the surface of the conscious mind when you see a man in dire straits, and they force you to help him.
When one positive samskara or virtuous action comes into play, another samskara of a dissimilar nature may also emerge and come in the way of its fulfilment. This is the fight between a positive and a negative samskara. For example, when you try to fix your mind on the Self and think of purity, just at that moment all negative thoughts and samskaras burst forth with violence and vengeance. This is termed as ‘crowding of samskaras’. Positive samskaras also crowd together and help you to drive out negative samskaras. The father of Swami Advaitananda was a great bhakta of Chandi. At the time of his death, he was semi-conscious. He began to repeat all the shlokas of the Chandi Stotra which he had learnt by heart while he was young. This is crowding of spiritual samskaras.

Past samskaras constitute prarabdha
When you are born, the mind is not a mere tabula rasa or blank tablet. It is a storehouse of samskaras, predispositions, predilections, etc. A child is born with his individual samskaras, with his past experiences transmuted into mental and moral tendencies and powers. The mind evolves through the impressions received from the universe through the senses. It will take many lifetimes till it gathers the complete experience of the world. Every person is born with his inherent samskaras which are embedded, lodged or imprinted in the chitta, which is the seat for prarabdha or past karma. In earthly life, one gains many more samskaras or experiences through actions, and these are added to the original store and become the future sanchita karmas (accumulated actions).
All samskaras lie dormant in the chitta as latent activities, not only of this life but of all previous lives. The samskaras of one’s animal lives, a kingly life, a peasant’s life, are all hidden in the chitta. In each life, only those samskaras which are appropriate to that particular type of birth will operate and come to play. The other samskaras will remain concealed and dormant. As a merchant closing the year’s ledger and opening a new one does not enter in the new book all the items of the old, but only its balances, so does the spirit hand over to the new brain its judgement on the experiences of a life that is closed, the conclusions to which it has come, the decisions at which it has arrived. This is the stock handed over to the new life, the mental furniture for the new dwelling, a real memory.

Paramahamsa Niranjananda Saraswati

Πέμπτη, 5 Απριλίου 2012


Yajna is the celebration of the first awakening of consciousness, the first breakthrough of consciousness that dawned on man and brought him to the first rung of evolution. When man learnt how to use fire to help, protect, nurture and sustain him, and when he learnt that grains could be cooked and cultivated, this understanding put him on the first rung of evolution. Yajna celebrates that first realisation, that first untainted, pure experience. The aim of yajna is to use that potential to further launch the consciousness into the unknown dimensions for further discoveries.

The Sat Chandi Maha Yajna is from the Devi Tantra. The activities and events of this tantric yajna unfold at many levels. Firstly there is the worship, the ritual, which is being performed by the experts, the pandits, who have come from Varanasi. Secondly, there are the kanyas who have been chosen by Sri Swamiji to guide the proceedings of the yajna. Their name is bal sundari. Bal sundari is one of the manifestations of the Cosmic Mother. Sundar means 'beautiful', bal means 'young'. Only virgins are called bal sundari. In tantra, virginity means purity of heart, the heart is without any taint. One is innocent, without the intellect superimposing itself.

When you function from the heart and when you are innocent and pure, that is the state of the Devi, the Cosmic Mother. That is also the state of the spirit, the atma. The divine manifests only in this virgin nature. We have the example of Mother Mary, the Virgin Mary. She was pure, and Christ came into her womb through immaculate conception. That is purity of heart, purity of spirit, purity of nature. The bal sundaris represent that aspect of the Cosmic Mother. They are the manifestation of that cosmic purity. They represent the manifest form of the power which has been invoked here. The kanyas are managing this entire yajna, conducting and guiding all the activities.

There is a reason why Sri Swamiji has not been present during the yajna. He has said that the Cosmic Mother, the cosmic force, has been invoked here, and we are all her offspring, her children. There has to be a connection, a direct contact, between the children and the mother. In that direct contact the guru has no role. Once that power has been given a farewell, then we will be able to have Sri Swamiji's darshan. When the mother goes, the guru comes. When the mother comes, the guru goes. The guru is the vehicle who leads you to your destination. When you reach your destination, you don't keep on sitting in the car; you leave it and get out. When you have to move again, you get in the car.

Worship of the Divine Mother
Giving in the proper way
If you wish to give the kanyas a gift, if you wish to give them chocolate or money, do it in the right manner. Do it through the office, but do not give to them directly. Maintain the sanctity of the yajna and the tradition of this place. It is Sri Swamiji's vision, his sankalpa, which is taking a manifest form. We are all part of that sankalpa and there are regulations, there is a discipline, there are systems for the fulfilment of the sankalpa. You have to be aware of that if you wish to help people. You have always helped them, and because of your help they have become what they are today. You have provided them with clothes, with food, with books, with toys, with chocolate. You have provided them with support, encouragement and help in every possible way, and you will continue to do so, but in the right manner and through the right channel. Because the kanyas represent the highest power of this creation during the yajna, and on the final day you will witness in them the grandeur and the glory of the Cosmic Mother.
Receiving the cosmic grace
On the last day of the yajna, two very important events take place. One is Kanya Pooja, worship of the virgins. The transcendental shakti, the transcendental cosmic energy, has been invoked by the mantras and the manifest form of that cosmic power, of that Cosmic Mother, can be seen in the kanyas.

After the completion of the worship of the kanyas there is the homa, or fire ritual. The homa is another important aspect of the Sat Chandi Maha Yajna. The fire will be lit in the same manner as the first fire was created, without the use of any modern instrument such as matches or lighters. Then the homa will begin. While the acharyas are chanting the mantras and saying 'Swaha' for the culmination of the yajna, you will also chant Swaha along with them. Just as the acharyas are offering oblations to the fire, you will be burning your suffering and pain in that fire with the chanting of Swaha. "My disease - Swaha; my problems - Swaha; my aches and pains - Swaha; my frustration - Swaha. I offer all that." Burn everything and become empty.

Once Krishna was asked, "Why is the flute so dear to you?" Krishna simply replied, "The flute is so dear to me because there is nothing in it. It is empty inside." Can you become empty? The kanyas have become empty and therefore the grace of guru has entered them. Sri Swamiji has entered them. If you can become empty, then the cosmic grace will fill your life.
A miracle of transformation
During the yajna you have witnessed the miracle of guru's grace and God's grace. The miracle is the transformation of the kanyas. What background have they come from and what kind of future do they have? You may not be aware of their past. They are not from the lower middle class or the middle class or the upper middle class or the higher class. They are from the lowest of the low. They have no opportunities to progress, to develop or to learn. Their life revolves around a few activities like cleaning, sweeping, cooking, child rearing and so forth. Their homes are deprived of all the facilities that you take for granted.

Yet Sri Swamiji knows these people have latent shakti in them and he has entered them. That does not mean that they have become his disciples or that he has become their guru, as you may think through your intellect and logic. Just as prana is in the body, the guru also transmits his shakti in the personality, and that is known as shaktipat. Transmission or transfer of shakti is not even felt or recognized by the recipient, yet the miracle of transformation begins to happen. If you put a seed with a hard shell into water, nothing will happen, but the day you plant it in the ground an invisible process begins which becomes the cause for the growth, development and nurturing of the seed into a plant, a shrub or a tree in the course of time. That invisible process which takes over the activities of life is known as shaktipat. It is not something that can be understood through logic.
Creating the first sparks of Fire
Innocence not intellect
Logic is the main barrier in our lives. After all, Sri Swamiji has entered all of you who are initiated disciples, who are sannyasins or karma sannyasins or yoga practitioners, but do you feel that? Your feeling is limited to your intellect only. You believe, "I have become a disciple, somebody has become my guru." That belief is generated by the thought and by the act which is again guided by the intellect. The desire that somebody should become your guru, the desire that you should become a disciple, is intellectual. You have thought about it, you have chosen somebody, you have decided to become the disciple of somebody, you have decided to follow somebody. It is a decision which has been taken knowingly. The intellect had decided that for you. If the intellect had decided that you should not be here, you would not be here! That is the main cause of failure in life. We fail because we do not allow that grace to possess our body and mind. As long as there is intellect, innocence cannot manifest. If you make an attempt to manifest that innocence in your life, you will be recognized as a hypocrite, because you are unable to feel the presence of the shakti which guru has infused in you. These kanyas have expressed that. We know - they feel; we use our intellect - they use their heart, their feeling. You can see that they are doing everything here; their presence is everywhere.

This is the miracle you have witnessed, the miracle that the grace of guru can work in a person's life. It is a great inspiration and learning for all of us. It is not something that is happening here for the first time. Christ said in the Bible, "In order to enter the kingdom of heaven you have to be innocent like a child." Everyone has expressed this sentiment, and it has been shown to you today by Sri Swamiji.

Swami Niranjan

Τρίτη, 3 Απριλίου 2012



Φτιαγμένη απο τα ίδια τα χερια του θεού Ήφαιστου! με πέντε απανωτές στρώσεις, δυο από καλάι, δυο από μπρούντζο και μια, τη μεσαία, από μάλαμα. 

Κι' έπειτα θα την πλουμίσει όσο δεν πλουμίστηκε καμιά ασπίδα στον κόσμο. 

Η ασπίδα είναι στρογγυλή κι' η εξωτερική της επιφάνεια θα σκεπαστεί ολόκληρη με εικόνες από χρυσάφι, ασήμι, καλάι και άλλα πολύτιμα υλικά, καταταγμένες σε πέντε ομόκεντρους κύκλους.

Στο μεσαίο ο Ήφαιστος «βάζει τη γη, βάζει τη θάλασσα, βάζει τα ουράνια απάνω, βάζει τον ήλιο τον ακούραστο, τ’ ολόγιομο φεγγάρι, κι' όλα τ' αστέρια, ως στεφανώνουνε τον ουρανό…» 

Ο δεύτερος από μέσα κύκλος παρασταίνει δύο πολιτείες, τη μία σε ώρες ειρηνικές, την άλλη σε άγριες ώρες πολέμου. Η πρώτη παράσταση είναι χωρισμένη σε δυο εικόνες: από τη μια έχουμε δυο άντρες πού δικάζονται στην αγορά, από την άλλη έναν γάμο. 

Στους δυο ακόλουθους κύκλους βλέπουμε ζευγολάτες πού οργώνουν, εργάτες πού θερίζουν, κοπέλες και παλικάρια πού τρυγούν, έπειτα βόδια και πρόβατα που βόσκουν, τέλος έναν χορό.

Όλες αυτές οι τόσο κινημένες σκηνές της γης θα κλειστούν με τον τελευταίο, τον εξώτατο κύκλο, πού παρασταίνει, τον Ωκεανό.

Για την κατασκευή της ασπίδας του Αχιλλέα επιστράτευσαν και ο Ήφαιστος και ο Όμηρος όλη τους την τέχνη. 

Η ασπίδα του Αχιλλέα είναι ένας ύμνος στην τεχνολογία, μια ποιητική παρουσίαση του πλέον περίφημου σε τέχνη έργου της ομηρικής εποχής!

Συγκεκριμένα, η ασπίδα του Αχιλλέα στο εσωτερικό των δύο εξωτερικών στρώσεων από σκληρό μπρούντζο, αλλά και των επίσης δύο στρωμάτων κασσιτέρου, διέθετε ένα γενναίο στρώμα καθαρού χρυσού. Δεν ήταν τυχαίος ο συνδυασμός.

Ο Ομηρος αφιερώνει στην ασπίδα του Αχιλλέα τουλάχιστον 134 στίχους στην Ιλιάδα, το απόσπασμα της οποίας είχαν ονομάσει οι αρχαίοι «οπλοποιία» !!!

Κυριακή, 1 Απριλίου 2012

Karma Sannyasa

Karma Sannyasa

Swami Satyasangananda Saraswati

"I have come a long way to speak to you," the newcomer said. He was an artist, a painter. He had long hair and delicate hands. Although he spoke slowly and carefully, measuring every word, there was a note of restlessness in his voice.

There were several people in the room. They had come to carry on a conversation started a few days earlier on the meaning and purpose of life. The artist was a newcomer, and he had come alone. With a slight hesitation he began to speak.

"In my life there have been the normal share of lips and downs. I have participated fully in every sphere of life, and really I have no reason to complain. But, nevertheless, I feel that there is something that I have missed out on.

I have begun to question my existence and my relationship with others. I feel an inadequacy of purpose in my life. I have often contemplated sannyasa, but I have a family to look after. I am not yet free of that. Yet, at the same time, I wish to give my life a new impetus, a new direction, and a new goal.

I would like to embark on a spiritual quest, but as a married man with obligations and responsibilities, it seems that all doors are closed to me. Or is there a way out? You see, if this realisation had dawned on me earlier, I would not have burdened myself with family and social commitments. But is it too late now? Where can I start?"

He paused, searching for an answer. He looked young in years, dressed simply with an air of casualness.

Swamiji looked directly at him and replied,
"There is a solution to every problem. We have only to find a way out. You see, man is born, he grows into an adult, gets married, earns a living, grows old and dies. This is what is happening everywhere. But can we believe that this is the sole purpose for which we live?

"Of course, there are many important factors which determine the life of a man. He is born with certain karma and samskaras, and he has to work them out before he can proceed on his life's journey. But what is the use of working out one set of karma, and at the same time, building up another set to influence your future life?

Therefore, you have to approach life with great care, proper understanding, and a desire to live a better quality of existence. I have met many people of your age, and also older, who were faced with the same problem. They wanted to improve the quality of their life. Many thought that sannyasa was the answer, but they were unable to adopt that way of life, for they were tied down by responsibilities which they had yet to work through. It seems pointless to abandon your responsibilities and than be ridden with guilt for the rest of your life."

Outside the sky was dense with clouds. It had rained the night before and the air was fragrant with the smell of wet earth.

Swamiji continued,
"I feel that if you view your life in the right perspective and make certain adjustments in your thinking, then in that you will find a solution to your problem. The problem is actually very simple. In fact, I even hesitate to call it a problem. Your thirst for the mundane experiences of life is more or less quenched. Your awareness is now growing to another dimension of experience. That experience is related to your evolvement - you may call it mental evolvement, spiritual evolvement or evolvement of consciousness. This has caused a restlessness in your being, for you are not able to adjust or understand how to combine and synthesise your everyday life with a higher, more meaningful existence.

I have given a great deal of thought to this problem. How is it possible to live the life of a householder and yet maintain a balance between the external and internal growth? And it is for this reason that I have reinterpreted the vanaprastha ashrama and adapted it to suit the needs of modern man. In the olden days when a householder or gribastha felt the need to delve deeper into the mysteries of life, he undertook the vanaprastha ashrama, retiring to the forest with his wife. There he spent his time in contemplation and inner reflection.

The vanaprastha ashrama was devised by the saints and sages who could envisage that once man has exhausted his ambitions, passions and desires, he would undoubtedly turn inwards. If, at that time, he is not given the facility, guidance and encouragement to understand his life better, he will develop mental and physical problems, and thus become a hindrance to both himself and society.

However, in today's world there are no forests in which to live, and it is not practical or even possible to create that situation. So I have introduced the concept of karma sannyasa based on the tradition of vanaprastha ashrama. Many people have already been initiated by me. They had similar problems to yours, and were of all age groups, married and single. Karma sannyasa has worked very well. In fact, wherever I go there are at least twenty to thirty candidates."

The artist, who had been listening intently to every word, asked Swamiji, "What is karma sannyasa and how do you become a karma sannyasin?"

Swamiji replied, "Karma sannnyasa is 'inaction in action'. This is the principal philosophy of the Bhagavad Gita. Krishna tells Arjuna, there is no harm in action, the danger lies in attachment and dependence on the fruits of the actions you have performed.

The wise man, even while acting in this world, is not interested in the fruits of his actions. The sense of doership which gives rise to happiness and unhappiness is fictitious. "You are not the doer of any action", he tells Arjuna, "So why do you assume doership?"

If you can understand this concept and implement it in your life, then you will gradually experience a higher quality of life. That is essentially the philosophy a karma sannyasin has to adopt. Live life fully, participate in all events of life externally, but internally maintain an attitude of non-doership. Do not become inactive, for you will gain nothing. What has to be done, has to be done. Even while doing the actions natural to you, if you are unattached to those actions you are truly the non-doer. On the other hand if you are doing nothing and are attached to that non-doership, then you become the doer.

You see, it is a very intricate philosophy, and it has to be understood in its true light. The change I am talking about is internal. Your external life goes on as it is. You live with your family, work, go on holidays, see movies. In fact, to an outsider you should appear to be the same person. But internally, you will have to do a lot of overhauling. All the changes that are taking place are within you, not outside. Of course, it does not happen overnight, it is a gradual process, but once you are able to grasp the importance of this idea in relation to your life and growth as an individual, you will find the answer to your problem."

The artist was silent and still pondering deeply on what had been said to him. A lady who had been attending many satsangs, and was herself in search of a new way of life said, "What is the importance of initiation in karma sannyasa ? So, if we are to maintain our external appearance, relationships and lifestyle as it is, is it not at all possible to achieve this inner attitude without being initiated into karma sannyasa?"

Swamiji paused for a while, looking out of the window. The clouds had burst into rain. Finally he said, "I was coming to that point. Of course, anyone who has this attitude to life is a karma sannyasin, whether or not he is initiated. But how many are able to say that they are not involved in their actions and can maintain a sense of detachment to the consequences of their actions, whether good or bad? Man is limited by his nature. He tries to overcome his limitations, but very often he fails in his attempt. On account of distractions, confusions in the mind, and a flagging will power, he is at a loss. So, it is important for him to have a guru from whom he can receive initiation. Initiation is not just a mere ritual. It is the transference of the guru's inspirational energy to the disciple. The disciple then draws on this energy to help him maintain one-pointedness and dedication in his efforts. The guru is there to administer guidance and inspiration, and to check where the disciple is going wrong.

In karma sannyasa it is very difficult for the disciple to maintain a balance between his worldly life and his inner life. Sometimes he may lean too heavily towards his inner quest and overlook his duties towards his family; at other times he may get caught up in the maya of worldly life and its distractions, and his sadhana may suffer. A karma sannyasin has to be very careful on this point. He should strive to maintain a balance.

On the one hand, he is a father, a husband, an employee, a member of society. And on the other hand, he is a seeker of the self, pursuing the goal of truth. Both roles should be complementary and conducive to each other. His performance and progress in spiritual life should enhance his worldly relationships and vice versa. Only then will he find fulfilment.

That is why a guru and initiation are most important for a karma sannyasin. In fact, karma sannyasa is more difficult to maintain than full sannyasa."

The artist looked up at Swamiji with apprehension,
a trifle hesitant, and said, "I have found a great deal of solace in what you have said. It has given me a new and exciting view of life. I feel now that there is a way for me, although I am so enmeshed in the trammels of day to day life. What do I have to do to become a karma sannyasin?"

Swamiji replied, "Approach a guru who can give you initiation and a proper understanding of the life you are about to enter. He will give you a sadhana for yourself. In course of time this sadhana will give you the strength, clarity of mind and correct judgement that you require in your life. He will give you a gem dhoti or a piece of unstitched cloth to wear at the time of sadhana as a symbol of your resolution.

If you wish to receive a spiritual name, he can give you that too. A spiritual name is important for it signifies that which is your real inner nature. The guru has a clear vision of your deeper nature, your karma, your past and present and future. And he gives you a name on that basis. It should be a constant reminder of your destination. Other than this, you continue to live as you have been living. Your relationship with your wife, the food you eat, your lifestyle, go on as they are."

The artist's face lit up with a smile and he said, "I was under the impression that I would have to make many changes in my life. It has been most gratifying to speak with you, however there is one last doubt I wish to clarify. What is the importance of celibacy in the life of a karma sannyasin. Does one have to practise it?

Swamiji closed his eyes for a brief moment and then looked up at him and said, "According to Hindu tradition, the relationship between husband and wife forms part of their dharma, and they are bound by it. Just as it is your dharma to serve your parents, in the same way, it is your dharma to abide by the injunctions laid down in the Vedas regarding your relationship with your wife. To go against that would be to go against one's dharma. Marital relations are not a sin rather they are a stepping stone to higher evolution.

Moreover, after being married for a number of years I think both partners are more or less satiated. The passion/desire neurosis that is experienced before marriage is almost exhausted. What remains is not craving and hankering, but an intimate relationship.

Of course, the practice of celibacy cannot be underestimated, but it has to be spontaneous, authentic and free from suppression. If you find it is not working then your usual relationship should be resumed on the basis of the tantric tradition. The necessary practices for a successful, truthful and rewarding outcome should be learned from the guru. Both partners should do the practices and thus raise the awareness from the gross centres to the higher plane.

The philosophy of karma sannyasa is very simple. Use your life as a householder for a higher purpose, not merely for eating, sleeping and procreating. In time this will produce good samskaras for you and your family, and pave the way for a higher incarnation in your next life. For samskaras, whether good or bad, are carried on from life to life. So we have to be very careful about what samskaras we accumulate."

The artist said thoughtfully, "My wife was unable to come here with me on account of the children. But she too may wish to join me in this initiation."

Swamiji rose from his chair, as if to leave the room, and replied, "Wonderful! What could be better than both husband and wife dedicated to a higher quality of life and deciding to tread the same path."